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Sexting and its potential links to sexual behavior, including risky sexual practices, have received scholarly scrutiny, but this literature is marked by divergent perspectives and disparate findings. To assess claims regarding the sexting videos tumblr of the relationship between sexting and sexual behavior, we conducted a critical review of the literature and analyzed data from 15 articles via quantitative meta-analytic techniques. Sexting behavior was positively related to sexual activity, unprotected sex, and one's of sexual partners, but the relationship was weak to moderate.
Additional information, gleaned from a critical review of included studies, helped contextualize these findings and point to specific limitations and directions for future research. Two discourses dominate this debate, both in the academic literature and in the popular press Doring, ; Rice et al. The prevailing discourse frames sexting as inherently risky, a deviant behavior in need of intervention and prevention. The competing frame positions sexting as a normal, even healthy aspect of sexual expression and relationships Doring, Many of those articles focused on the relationship between sexting and risky sexual behaviors, but a systematic examination and synthesis of that literature was beyond the scope of her review.
Scholarly interest in the potential links between sexting and risky sexual behavior began with the publication of the of the Sex and Tech survey commissioned by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy and Cosmogirl. Close on the heels of the Sex and Tech survey came the AP-MTV Digital Abuse Studywhich involved a survey completed by a nationally representative sample of individuals ages 14— This study documented similar sexting prevalence rates, adding that sexually active individuals were twice as likely to send nude self- images than their nonsexually active counterparts.
Sexting videos tumblr this end, we gathered all published, peer-reviewed studies on sexting and sexual behavior and subjected those studies to a meta-analytic and critical review.
The following sections describe how researchers have studied sexting and what we can glean from a critical review and synthesis of this literature. Initially, researchers focused their efforts on establishing the prevalence of sexting within particular populations, but, more recently, scholars turned their attention to sexting correlates Walrave et al. Neither set of studies, however, has produced consistent findings. Studies involving nationally representative probability samples of teens report sexting prevalence rates ranging from 2.
Scholars e. For example, nonprobability and adult samples frequently yield the highest prevalence rates, and, like most sex research, sexting studies rely heavily sexting videos tumblr convenience samples Dunne, ; Klettke et al. The wide variation in sexting prevalence rates might also be due to various biases. These methodological issues might also for the inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between sexting and risky sexual behavior.
For example, some studies have reported a ificant relationship between sexting and risky sexual practices, such as sex with multiple partners e.
There seems to be greater consensus among researchers regarding the relationship between sexting and sexual activity, more generally; however, Temple and Choiwho analyzed the second and third waves of data sexting videos tumblr a longitudinal sexting study, found that being asked or asking for a sext at Wave 2 was not associated with sexual activity at Wave 3.
As such, we sought to clarify the relationship between sexting, sexual activity, and risky sexual practices i. In addition to these methodological limitations, theoretical issues make it difficult to interpret sexting study findings. Several scholars e. Although this meta-analysis was not deed to test a theory, per se, our research questions were informed by two theoretical perspectives, which align with the deviance and normalcy frames that dominate the sexting literature. Problem behavior theory assumes that different problem behaviors stem from the same causes and that individuals who engage in one problematic activity will be more likely to exhibit other problematic behaviors.
The deviance perspective that dominates the sexting literature advances similar arguments regarding sexting and sexual risk. If, in fact, sexting is linked to risky sexual practices, then this might give credence to both the deviance perspective and problem behavior theory. Unlike the deviance perspective, which assumes that sexting is part of a constellation of risky practices, the normalcy discourse frames sexting as a healthy form of sexual expression Doring, Catharsis theory provides some support for this argument.
In the context of sexting, catharsis theory would predict that those who send or receive sexts would be less likely to engage in sexual activity. Given these competing explanatory frameworks and contradictory findings regarding the links between sexting, sexual activity, and risky sexual practices, we developed two research questions to guide our meta-analytic review. RQ1: What is the nature of the relationship between sexting and sexual activity?
RQ2: What is the nature of the relationship between sexting and risky sexual practices i. To address our research questions, we relied on meta-analytic techniques, which allow researchers to synthesize the of multiple studies in order to measure the overall effect of one variable on another. We followed Lipsey and Wilson's recommendation to employ Pearson's r as the standard effect size representing the relationships between our concepts of interest: sexting and sexual behaviors.
The following sections describe how we approached searching the literature, coding the articles we located, and building a meta- analytic dataset. We used one search term, sextingand we limited our searches to published, English-language articles. We concentrated our efforts on gathering published, peer-reviewed articles for two reasons.
First, we wanted to avoid drawing on the same data more than once in our analysis; because many of the conference papers and dissertations that we examined were eventually published, we excluded the unpublished versions. Second, although including unpublished manuscripts in a meta-analysis is one way in which researchers attempt to combat publication bias, Ferguson and Brannickin an empirical test of this assumption, found that this practice might actually increase publication bias.
As such, we focused on published articles on sexting and sexual behavior. In addition to searching for relevant research via library databases, we reviewed the reference lists of the articles we gathered to identify potentially useful papers that were not indexed by PubMed or EBSCO.
Our database searches and reference list mining produced. After removing duplicates and articles that did sexting videos tumblr meet our inclusion criteria i. After our literature search, we reviewed each article in order to identify the operational definitions of sexting and sexual behavior that were employed. We identified the following characteristics of each article: the authors; the publication date; sexting videos tumblr publication outlet; the study de i.
After conducting this review of the articles that we had gathered, we decided to exclude 32 articles because their authors either did not report how they measured sexting or did not examine the relationship between sexting and sexual behavior. As a result, we were left with 23 articles that dealt with the variables of interest: sexting, sexual activity, unprotected sex acts, and sex with multiple partners. We used a spreheet to record the effects representing the relationships between our variables of interest, and we included these effects regardless of whether they were reported in the article as bivariate relationships only or within a multivariate model.
For example, in some cases, the variables of interest were only reported in the of a logistic regression model that also included other independent variables. In line with current recommendations Ferguson,we chose to favor reported from multivariate models, if available, or bivariate relationships e.
Of the 23 articles that dealt with our variables of interest, eight did not have sufficient information to use for our meta-analysis i. Due to differences in the way in which these 23 reported articles data, we contacted the corresponding authors in order to obtain the necessary information, but our requests were met with few favorable responses. Unable to secure the necessary data to conduct our own multivariate analyses, we were faced with a choice between: a sexting videos tumblr meta-analytic data set that was incomplete due to nonresponse from some authors or b a data set that contained estimates derived solely from information provided in the articles, thereby excluding the eight with insufficient information.
Either choice seemed imperfect, but, ultimately, we chose the second option. We were able to use effect estimates taken directly from these articles. Three articles reported only bivariate correlations. Six other articles reported multivariate with sexual behavior as an independent variable and sexting as a dependent variable, which ran counter to the assumptions of the theories that guided this analysis and produced effect estimates that were not analytically comparable to those from the other articles.
Thus, for these studies, we calculated the effects as bivariate relationships chi-square tests with one degree of freedom from information available in the articles. Our final meta-analytic spreheet included 15 articles drawing on 14 unique data sets two articles were based on the same data set. Study characteristics are summarized in Table 1.
These 15 articles identified a total of 50 effects. Eleven effects were originally reported in the articles as a bivariate Pearson's r correlation or equivalent e. The remaining 39 effects required a mathematical conversion to Pearson's r. One effect was reported as a comparison of means between two groups i.
Ten effects were reported as adjusted odds-ratios. The remaining 28 effects were either a reported as chi-square tests with one degree of freedom or b derived from information provided in the article and used to calculate a chi-square test ourselves. We could then conduct ificance tests for a chi-square statistic with one degree sexting videos tumblr freedom. An overview of the effects we identified from each article is provided in Table 2. Descriptions of variables are taken verbatim from each study on the indicated. The chi-square test was calculated based on information provided in the article.
Variable was recoded to collapse the two sexting into one category. Our analysis relied on data derived from a total of 15 published articles that explored sexting videos tumblr links between sexting and aspects of sexual behavior, including participants' engagement in sexual acts generally, engagement in unprotected sexual acts, and of sexual partners. In the following sections, we expound on the characteristics of these studies and present the of our meta-analytic review.
Our critical review of the articles included in our meta-analysis uncovered some trends with respect to the publication of manuscripts that dealt with sexting and sexual behavior as well as the des of these kinds of studies. Although we did not restrict our literature search by date, we did not locate any articles on sexting and sexual behavior that were published prior to In addition, a majority We also noticed some trends regarding publication outlets.
The vast majority Conspicuously absent from this list of publication outlets were communication journals, despite the centrality of communication and communication technologies to sexting. A closer reading of the included articles revealed additional trends regarding study des. For example, despite the lack of prior research on which to base hypotheses, none of the authors posed formal research questions. Instead, authors specified the general aims or purpose of the study. Six articles described the authors' hypotheses, and, although these hypothesis statements made multiple predictions, only one article i.
Only two of the articles that we reviewed based their predictions on a specific theory or theoretical model i. All but one study i. The majority One study i. The communication technologies associated with sexting also differed across studies. In seven studies, participants were asked about sexting via text or online, and five studies focused just on text messaging. The measures employed in these studies also characterized the form and content of sexts in different ways. Ten studies specified the photo or message subject i. The articles we reviewed reported data from a total of 18, participants, and their characteristics are reported in Table 1.
Eleven articles described samples with a higher percentage of female than male participants, and, in the studies with more male participants, the percentage of males who participated was only slightly higher than the percentage of females who took part. Of the four studies that mentioned transgender participants i. Ybarra and Mitchell used a similar technique when reporting the racial composition of their sample.
Two articles i. Six articles described samples dominated by White participants, four indicated that the samples featured more Hispanic individuals than people from other ethnic groups, and one study sample was comprised of more African Americans than Whites or Hispanics.
Six articles mentioned questions regarding participants' sexual identity or orientation i. Finally, although the participants in these studies ranged in age from 10 to 51 years old, only one study i.Sexting videos tumblr
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