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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Sending and receiving sexually suggestive or explicit images or texts sexting have been shown to be associated with health risk behaviors but literature about this phenomenon is scarce in Nigeria. This study looked at the prevalence, predictors, and associated sexual risk behaviors of sexting among postsecondary school young persons in Ibadan, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were obtained for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual orientation, sexting behavior, personality assessment using the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five factor markersindicators for problematic transgender snapchat sexting use using Mobile Phone Problem Use Scaleand sexual behavior.
Twenty percent had sent sexts, while Fifty-four percent had high scores in extraversion, Sixteen percent had ever had sex, and Sexting was prevalent among postsecondary school young persons in Ibadan and was associated with male sex and problematic phone use.
Intervention targeted at the identified susceptible group of young people may reduce its associated problems in this study group. It is a relatively new phenomenon among young people 2. There is a great variation in the prevalence of sexting among young people as reported in the literature. This variation can be explained by the different methodologies employed and the different definitions given to sexting in these studies 134.
Mitchell et al. The adolescents in this study may have underreported sexting activity because of the presence of caregivers in the homes despite transgender snapchat sexting efforts made to ensure privacy and confidentiality. On the other hand, Rice et al. The adolescents in this case were more open about their involvement in sexting due to the absence of caregivers.
Sexting has been reported to be more prevalent among the older age group 5. Sexting has also been defined in different ways, and this resulted in high prevalence rates when the definition is broad to include sending of both sexually suggestive or explicit pictures and texts.
Lower prevalences were reported when the definition is limited to sending of just sexually suggestive or explicit pictures or texts. Prevalence reported among young people in the United State varies between 1. Sexting has been described as a harmless behavior and a normal way of communicating intimacy by some scholars 78.
This suggestion is strengthened by the fact that sexting has been observed to be common among romantically involved young people 19 Some adolescents also use sexting as a way of expressing their sexuality and serves transgender snapchat sexting alternative to more explicit physical sexual acts 3. Adolescents who engage in sexting have reported that their peers also sext, and this suggests that this transgender snapchat sexting is being viewed as a normal behavior among them 13. However, sexting has been shown to be associated with some factors, including health risk behaviors some of which have devastating consequences and environmental and personal factors.
Some of the health risk behaviors include risky sexual behaviors, pornography and substance use, bullying, and even suicide 11 — Young people who engage in sexting were more likely to engage in risky physical sexual activities 2312 and more likely to seek the fulfilment of the aroused desires shortly after exchanging sexual messages with their sexual partners 11 There has been a suggestion that young people who have online sexual behaviors which can include sexting were more likely to have problematic family background This was corroborated by Benotsch et al.
Young people who get involved in sexting have been reported to develop new risky sexual behaviors 6. Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of behaviors 1415and personality traits that have been associated with sexting include extraversion, neuroticism, and low agreeableness The negative consequences of sexting may be a serious issue among young people because of their inability to handle complex emotional issues which sometimes accompany sexting.
There are in addition, external stressors like academic and social demands which are common at this stage of development. There has been a great increase in the rate of phone use in developing countries including sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade 17 This has also increased smart cell phone possession by young people in this region 19even among those of lower socioeconomic status These phones have become more affordable and have an increasing complex capability to take photos, create videos, and connect to social networking sites 4 Thus, with increasing possession of smart phones and access to the Internet, it is possible that sexting occurs among young people in Nigeria and other developing countries just as it is found in developed countries.
However, literature about this phenomenon barely exists in Africa, including Nigeria. It is, therefore, important to determine the pattern of sexting and its associated problems among Nigerian young people as there may be sociocultural influences, which may make the pattern different from what has been reported earlier in the literature among young people from other regions.
Thus, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexting, its predictors, and associated sexual risk behaviors among postsecondary school young people attending Advanced Education centers and pre-varsity examination preparatory centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study was conducted in Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo State, which is the second largest state in Nigeria. This study was conducted among postsecondary school students attending Advanced Education centers and pre-varsity examination preparatory centers in Ibadan.
The postsecondary school study population was purposively selected because they were more likely to have personal phones and be sexually active compared with the younger age group. Sample size was calculated using the formula for cross-sectional studies as described by Kish 20 and sexting prevalence of The level of precision was set at 5. Putting into consideration the clustering nature of the schools calculated sample size was multiplied by an effect factor transgender snapchat sexting 2 and a non-response rate of A cross-sectional study de was used with two-stage sampling technique employed to select 4 out of 6 registered Advanced Education Centers, 10 out of an estimated 30 pre-varsity exam preparatory centers and students.
Sexting in this study was defined as the sending or receiving of nude or almost nude pictures and sexually suggestive pictures or text messages. A pretested, structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data about sociodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, sexting prevalence, predictors of sexting mobile phone access and use, personality traits, and problematic mobile phone useand sexual risk behaviors from the respondents.
Socioeconomic class was determined using the method described by Oyedeji in Nigeria 22 using a composite obtained from education level and occupation of both parents.
In this classification, class I is the highest while class V is the lowest economic class. Overall score for each trait less than the mean score of the trait indicated low-trait score. Problematic mobile phone use was assessed using the item Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale 24 and scored on point Likert scale. Respondents were told that they could skip any question they did not feel comfortable with and that they could opt out of the study anytime they want.
Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version Descriptive statistics were reported and categorical variables were compared using Chi square test. Variables which showed ificant association with sexting were included in a multivariate logistic regression model. Predictors for each of the different sexting activities were determined, and each of the models were then adjusted for sexual orientation, socioeconomic class, family type, who the respondent live with, and the identified predictors.
Sexual behaviors which predicted sending and receiving of sext both pictures and text were also determined, and this was then adjusted for sexual orientation, age, sex, and the different sexual behaviors. ificance level for all tests was 5. The mean age of the respondents was The majority Almost all Those who had high personality trait score were Moderate to severe problematic phone use was also found in Among the respondents, Reasons for sending sext include for fun Sociodemographic characteristics among respondents who had received or sent sexts.
While high extraversion personality OR: 2. Ninety Only 48 Alcohol or drugs were used at the last sexual intercourse by 18 Among our study population, there were young people involved in sexting, and this was ificantly associated with high extraversion personality trait, moderate to severe problematic phone use, and some risky sexual behaviors.
The prevalence of sexting was comparable with both the finding from Peru 21 which is transgender snapchat sexting developing country just like Nigeria but with some sociocultural differences and from South Africa This prevalence was, however, higher than that reported from another study in the United States 3. All these studies used the broad definition of sexting transgender snapchat sexting used in the present study, which is sending of sexually explicit or suggestive texts or images.
Therefore, the sexting prevalence may be higher in Peru if a similar age group was studied as sexting has been associated with increasing age in America and South Africa 12 However, the prevalence of sexting among populations of young people from developed countries appeared to be higher even among the younger age groups when sexting was given a broad definition as done in this study 2 This may be because the Internet access is more readily available and cheaper in these regions.
The total absence of young people in socioeconomic class V is likely due to the low parental education and less skilled occupation which is not likely to encourage higher education pursuit of their children, and so, such young people are not likely to be present in the study population. It is interesting to note that There may actually be an underreporting of these sexual orientation as LGBT is not socially or legally acceptable in Nigeria, and if caught, they would be imprisoned. However, these people form an important group as they tend to have special health needs 26 There were more receivers of sexts in this study, as reported in earlier studies 12than senders.
This may be attributed to multiple recipients from one sender as in the case of blackmail or transgender snapchat sexting possibility of respondents receiving sexts from older adult senders, whose age group was not captured by the study. This may constitute a threat in form of sexual molestation or exploitation of these young people by the older adults.Transgender snapchat sexting
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